Archive for April, 2015

Beginning research in the tumultuous 1960s, Sesame Street, “strived to exemplify and create an egalitarian and more tolerant community” (Mandel 3). As an American icon, Sesame Street’s goal was to foster generations that would create a new world through diversity, Television education and the whole child curriculum.

First and foremost, Sesame Street was created to “educate disadvantaged urban preschool children” (3 Mandel). In 1966 Joan Ganz Cooney began researching the value of educational programming for disadvantaged pre-schoolers (Mandel 4). In her research, Cooney highlighted the limited availability of pre-school and the widening gap between the middle and low class as reasons for “the creation of supplementary educational opportunities through the untapped medium of television” (Mandel 4). Through her research Sesame Street was born.

Originally, non-profit organizations and the federal government funded Sesame Street. In the first year The Elementary and Secondary Education Act under President Johnson’s Great Society funded Sesame Street with eight million dollars. Sesame Street was apart of the growing concern for the poor in the economic boom of post war America. John Kenneth Galbraith’s The Affluent Society, “condemn[ing] the limited agenda and investments of US public policy in schools and other public services,” and Michael Harrington’s The Other America, revealing the hidden poor among the affluent nation were contemporary projects focused on helping the poor.Sesame Street’s development was only possible due to America’s interest in helping the poor through Johnson’s Great Society programs.



Emerging from the Civil Rights Movement, one of Sesame Street’s main goals was to exemplify and encourage diversity. The decision to create a set that represented an urban neighborhood was to give disadvantaged urban youth a place to admire and relate to, “unlike the images of civil rights workers drenched in fire-hose water or looters sabotaging city areas, which occupied the news stories in the 1960s” (Mandel 6). Sesame Street’s set was also a way to “present the realities of the ghettos as they are or as they might be” (Mandel 6). Puppeteer, Fran Brill stated, “Every race every ethnicity is on this set. I remember thinking this is what the world should be like everybody’s somebody…this is a microcosm of what the world should be” (celebration 137).

Diversity in ethnicity took hold in the human characters on the show. The show’s central location was in front “an African American married couple named ‘Gordan’ and ‘Susan[‘s]’ house, which ‘served as the nucleus of the show’” (Mandel 7). Other characters included a white male, Mr. Hooper, Hispanic males, Luis and Rafael, Hispanic female Maria and an African American youth named David. The strong presence of male characters, especially African American males, combatted the 1965 Moynihan report that stated, “The Negro community has been forced into a matriarchal structure which, because it is so out of line with the rest of the American society, seriously retards the process of the group as a whole” (Mandel 9). These male characters gave African American children strong male role models.

As the second wave of feminism took hold of the country, Sesame Street adjusted the show not only introducing more female characters but also increasing female importance on the show and in terms of the character’s occupations. For example in Gordan and Susan’s relationship, Gordan was the breadwinner and Susan was the housewife. As the feminist movement grew Gordan and Susan’s relationship became more equal in occupations (Maria became a public health nurse) and in house work (Mandel 10).

Diversity in the muppet characters represented diversity in personality. Big Bird became a six year old child, “who would get the answered wrong so obviously the kids watching would feel empowered by their own knowledge of the right ones” (celebration 51). Carol Spinney, who plays Big Bird stated, “I try to make big birds reactions those of a youngster who often feels that everyone else seems to know more than he does” (Celebration 51). Kermit the frog brought “gentleness and naivete” as well as “taught children to see the beauty of any skin color, even a green outerlayer” (Mandel 11). Bert and Ernie represented two friends that continued to get alone despite different personalities. Oscar the Grouch gave children permission to feel grouchy and “helped children better understand and accept certain emotions” (Mandel 11). Oscar’s interaction with other characters also “model[ed] the ways people adapt to the quirks of others” (celebration 157). Later characters, Zoe, Rosita and Abby stood opposite the male muppets and Elmo represented the youngest Sesame Street watcher through his “very primitive language” (Celebration 100). Every character provided a representation of every child in America.

Bert and Ernie Sleep  

Grover Annoys Oscar:

Kermit the Frog It’s not Easy Being Green 

Elmo’s World: 

Big Bird: 

Zoe, Rosita & Abby: 



Television Education

            Sesame Street was the first children’s television show supported by research and testing. (celebration 152). The original education goals of the show were symbolic representation (letters and numbers), cognitive processes (things like size relationships and orders), physical environment (city and country, plants and animals), and social environment (interactions like cooperation and appreciating differing perspectives) (celebration 155). Worried children would not be able to distinguish fantasy from reality in concerns to the Muppets, Sesame Street conducted research that concluded “children were most attentive when Muppets were on the screen” (celebration 48).

The following sketches illustrate Sesame streets broad educational goals.

“C is for Cookie” teaches recognition of letters but also that cookies are as a sometimes food, which teaches the importance of nutrition. 

Count Von Count helps children learn to count 

Cookie Monster in library – This segment is important because it shows Sesame Street’s desire to produce characters like their audience so the audience has a change to answer questions before the characters. There is a sense that children will understand the purpose of a library before Cookie Monster. 

Big Bird & Triangles 

            Sesame Street’s ultimate goal was to teach children “how to think for themselves” (Celebrations 155). With Sesame Street’s original educational goal being to help disadvantaged children get on a level playing field with middle class children before entering school, Sesame Street exemplifies the American idea of equal opportunity. Without Sesame Street, children unable to go to preschool would not be unable to start learning. Even though Sesame Street now reaches all different income levels and ethnicities, this original goal to provide pre-school to all children has not disappeared. To this day, interactivity where, the characters spoke directly to the television audience, posing questions and waiting several second to give the viewer an opportunity to respond before providing the answer,” drives the education on Sesame Street (Mandel 8).

Whole Child Curriculum

Oh all the good things provided by Sesame Street, the whole child curriculum is the most important. Instead of just focusing on education basics for school, Sesame Street creators made a conscious effort to improve emotional and social education. Blah blah said, “this is a medium for children but we don’t talk down to them” (celebration 100). Sesame Street has never been afraid to address serious topics in an appropriate way for their audience. The whole child curriculum is the most important way Sesame Street strives to create a new and better world. In American culture it can be seen as moral superiority John Winthrop describe in his City Upon a Hill. Whole childhood education can produce a generation and country that is the epitome of morality in the world.

The following are videos that focus on children’s health – taking care of one’s body is just as important as the alphabet.

Grover’s workout video 

Rubber ducky – importance of bath time 

A Cookie is a Sometimes Food 

Healthy Teeth Healthy Me: Brushy Brush 

The following videos are only three examples of the heavy topics Sesame Street has tackled in its 40 years. The episode about divorce is the second attempt at addressing the issue. Originally the segment was with Snuffleupagus, but was never air. Through testing, the producers figured out it would not be appropriate to show their young audience. Years later, Sesame Street successfully addresses the topic through one of their new characters, Abby the fairy.


Goodbye Mr. Hooper: 


Big Bird at Jim Henson’s Memorial: 

The following three videos are examples of the different topics Sesame Street addresses in their whole child curriculum.

Zac Efron & Patience

Sonia Soytomayor & Career 

I am special – Grover 

Robin Williams & Conflict

James Gandolfini & Fear 

In the 40 years that Sesame Street has been on air many things have change, such as the elimination of government funding, new characters, and even the expansion of the show internationally. Sesame Street’s success across the world shows just how important the show is to the development of children. The most important thing that has remained the same on Sesame Street is the shows commitment to diversity, educating children of all ages and incomes and developing generations of children ready for the complex world that they live in. Ask any adult and most likely he or she grew up watching Sesame Street, or one of the many shows that followed in the image of the show.


Gikow, Louise A. Sesame Street: A Celebration of 40 years of Life on the Street. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 2009.

Mandel, Jennifer. “The Production of a Beloved Community: Sesame Street’s answer to American Inequalities.” The Journal of American Culture 29:1 (2006): 3-13.

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create new ideas about American women!

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By Thibault THIERRY, University of Angers


Coca-Cola history began in 1886, same year as statue of liberty unveiled, when the curiosity of an Atlanta pharmacist, Dr. John S. Pemberton, led him to create a distinctive tasting soft drink that could be sold at soda fountains.

1886: the first Coca‑Colas were sold 5 cents per glass. Next, the beverage became available in bottles.
Soda fountains: not just a place to drink if thirsty, also a place to gather, talk, meeting place for both men and women, without fear of censorship (important in victorian age, no saloons)
Offered a lot of flavours, mixing a thick syrup to carbonated water, and finely cheaped ice.

1886 – Coca-Cola sold approximately 9 drinks per day, 25 gallons a year (bad).
1920 – 6.5 million drinks per day (including bottles and fountain drinks) 
1950 – 50 million soft drinks sold per day
1980 – 250 million sold per day
2009 – Estimated at 1.6 billion per day
2014 – Today, daily servings of Coca‑Cola beverages are estimated at 1.9 billion globally.

Coke has come a long way from its soda fountain days.
It’s now possible to make your own personalized Coca-Cola drink through soda machines or on the internet.

John S. Pemberton, “Doc”:

Civil war officer in the confederate forces, had a medical training, pharmacist,.

1870, moved to Atlanta, Georgia (before : Columbus) : leading city of the New South after civil war
and spent most of his life looking for the product that was going to make him richin his house that was also his laboratory.
Pills, medicines etc. But never a success.

Added flavours, syrup to boiling water, and dispatched his work in pharmacies to see if people liked it, always modifying it, looking for a miracle thing that people would like.
Brand new flavour : Coca-Cola. Very distinct kind of flavour

He died in 1888 (27 y o), stomach ache, problems due to civil war.
Before his death Dr. Pemberton sold portions of his business to various parties, with the majority of the interest sold to Atlanta businessman, Asa G. Candler.

Frank M. Robinson:

Yankee, trying to make a career in advertising.
Dr. Pemberton’s partner and bookkeeper
Pemberton better at creating products than selling them.
They focused on his new idea : a beverage.

Created the name “Coca‑Cola”, catchy, repetition of Os and As.
Wrote it out in script, his signature created the logo still used today in fact.
The Coca-Cola logo was registered as a trademark in 1893. The logo has remained the same in Spencerian script.
The only thing that changes is the backgrounds (red on white, white or red, disc, rectangles, etc.)

Asa G. Candler:

A businessman, a pilar of rectitude, not frivolous.Mayor of Atlanta 1916-1919
Couldn’t get a job at pemberton’s, was seeking fortune in atlanta, and did it : 100 000 $ a year for his company

In 1887 Robinson came to see him and asked if he’d like to invest in Coca‑Cola, answered no, not interested in a new product and his drugstore didn’t have a soda fountain anyway.
But then tried Coca-Cola for the first time.
He claimed that this one drink made him a true believer in the possibilities of Coca-Cola, he saw the opportunities.

1891: Sole owner of Coca-Cola, investment 2300 dollars.
Had a vision and strong marketing capability.
Under his leadership, distribution of Coca‑Cola expanded to soda fountains beyond Atlanta.
Had to convince a skeptical public it was special.
Had the idea of free coke, tickets : you try it once, you like it, next time you come in you pay for it.
Sales climbed, but limit to what coupons could do, and rural country difficult to attain.

1st scandal and not the last one : the rumor had spread that there was cocaine in Coca-Cola and it enraged him, he told the atlanta journal he would close the company immeiately if there were a single case of someone being harmed by the drink. “there is not one indivisible atom of cocain in an ocean of Coca-Cola, that is absolute and final”.

By the end of the 19th cent: Coca‑Cola was sold in all 46 states.
But Candler wasn’t interesting in the bottling market though.

The Bottle:

In 1894, Joseph Biedenharn installed a bottling machinery in the rear of his Mississippi soda fountain, becoming the first to put Coca‑Cola in bottles, to make it portable.

In 1899, 5y later, three businessmen Benjamin Thomas, Joseph Whitehead and John Lupton purchased the bottling rights from Asa Candler for just $1.
They wanted to make bottles, for people to take them home.They developed what became the Coca‑Cola worldwide bottling system and large scale bottling was made possible
Candler had first answered : neither money, brains nor time to embark in the bottling business. But he was happy to sell exclusive rights to bottle and sell Coca‑Cola to other businessmen, for it would need a lot of capitalization that he hadn’t. So he gives them a try.

First : Hutchinson bottle, you had to pop the top to open it. But quality issues.
But they were facing imitations (lime cola, chero cola, coke ola…) by competitors among the 1,000 bottling plants at the time.

The label had candler’s signature as proof of its authenticity, but tbottles were kept in ice before selling, and label often got out. They needed a bottle you can recognize in the dark, that you can recognize in the street even by looking at broken pieces.
The bottlers agreed that a distinctive beverage needed a standard and distinctive bottle, and in 1916, the bottlers approved the unique contour bottle. The new Coca‑Cola bottle was so distinctive it could be recognized in the dark and it effectively set the brand apart from competition.

1915-1916 – winning design, an employee (Earl R. Dean) created it by looking in an encyclopedia at coco fruit, a mistake, the bottle had its shape. Shaped like female forms.
Perfect commercial package: fits in a hand perfectly, feels good, letters have a tactile quality, anticipation of the drink itself.
Coca-Cola made a U.S. patent trademark of the contour bottle to bring distinction of the Coca-Cola brand.
1919 – new design sold all over the country.
1950s – Coca-Cola offered a variety of package size drinks. There was the contour bottle (6.5 ounce) and included 10, 12 and 26-ounce bottles.
Later in the 1960s, Coca-Cola cans became available.
The actual bottle was trademarked in 1977.
Over the years, the Coca‑Cola bottle has been inspiration for artists across the globe — a sampling of which can be viewed at the World of Coca‑Cola in Atlanta.
(andy warhol’s pop art)
1977 – Coke introduced the plastic bottle
1994 – the drink was available in the 2 liter bottle.

Today, the contour of the Coca-Cola bottle is recognized all over the globe, it is sold in over 200 countries and can be found almost anywhere, in many languages : French, Ethiopian, Spanish, Arabic, Dutch, Chinese etc. But NOT in North Korea, Cuba, Burma, Iran and Sudan.

Robert Woodruff: 1923 1954 President of Coca-Cola

Son of the chairman of the board of Coca-Cola.
Prohibition followed the war in the roaring twenties, and sodas, particularly Coca-Cola became the best alternative in public (rather than lemonade wich was old fashion, like grandmas)
Technological inventions : coolers : coke sold in gas stations
In the 1920s Coca-Cola invented the carton, 6 pack, before that sold one bottle at a time.

He understood the power of idea of “secret formula”, played with it, put it in a vault of his family. Created the myth : exists ? Where it is ? Written down ? The company remains tight lipped.To keep people interested in it.
Wanted to sell it around the world too, cuba, mexico first.
Difficult in england : no cool drinks or soda fountains, took 20 y more.
Huge visionary.

Advertisement, marketing devices:

Coca-Cola followed every change of society, you can teach history of American society by using Coca-Cola advertisement.

If the country is having a bad time, or you’re having a bad time, it’s ok, there’s still coke (depression, war etc.)

The bottle in itself of course is a marketing device.

The first marketing efforts in Coca‑Cola history were coupons promoting free samples of the beverage.
Then followed by newspaper advertising and the distribution of promotional items bearing the Coca‑Cola logo to participating pharmacies.

Artistic quality of ads since the beginning, beautiful script. No cost saving, high quality choices of what they could do.

By 1906, the company was spending half a million dollars annually for ads.
In 1909, Coca-Cola was proclaimed ‘the best advertised article’ in the nation. Advertising spending topped $1 million by 1912 and doubled again before the Roaring Twenties.
In recent times their ad budget continues to grow, according to the Atlanta Business Chronicle, “Coca-Cola spent $1.97 billion for print, radio and television advertisements in 2001.”

Since 1886 Coca-Cola has has used over 45 different slogans, catchy lines:
The first one was ‘Delicious and Refreshing’. Others : “The Pause That Refreshes”; Drink Coca-Cola; It’s The Real Thing; Have A Coke And A Smile…

Coca-Cola has been partners with the Olympics for more than eighty years. It was during the IX Olympic Summer Games that Coca-Cola made its first official appearance.

Always connected with pause, taking a break.
1920s : idea of taking a break for refreshment more and more important, in the industrial explosion.
“the pause that refreshes”
Idealized america in ads, Norman Rockwell for example in art, with a good traditional america in paintings.

Woodruff thought they couldn’t be just a summer drink any more, “Thirst knows no season”
Christmas, winter months : not strong for the sale of Coca-Cola.
1931- The first mascot, Santa Claus was introduced : Haddon Sundblom: Bloody cheek, fat santa, red clothes, sunny face, opulence, joy, opposite of depression era corner hoboes around chicago, skinny and alcoholic ringing bells. Before that he had all sorts of clothes. Way to reassuring people.

1960s 70s Coca-Cola still in the time, ads adapted, how americans viewed these years.
Jingles : Billy Davis, Bill Backer, Aretha Franklin, Ray charles etc. Coca-Cola reflected a new music.
1969 : people looking for stability. Vietnam war etc. Coke is here. “it’s the real thing”
TV spots : Multicultural youngs singing together, a bottle of Coke in a hand.
Positive message in a disturbed time. Not singing war songs.

But 1970s, faded away the spirit of the 1960s : gas running out, prices etc. People needed a pause to refresh more than ever. World’s best soft drink and music in ads.
Coca‑Cola’s advertising started to reflect a brand connected with fun, friends and good times.
1971 Hilltop Singers :“I’d Like to Buy the World a Coke”
1979 “Have a Coke and a Smile”

The 1980s featured such memorable slogans as “Coke is It!”, “Catch the Wave” and “Can’t Beat the Feeling”.
Mid 1980s : sugar cola market declining.
People tired of the taste ? Wondered the company.
They managed to create a new Coca-Cola flavour. Made a change.
1984 : new secret program to launch a new coke.
The CEO of the time, april 23rd 1985, roberto gasueto, ny city press conference : announced the new drink. New formula.
But public reaction immediate and negative. Angry consumers, that were attache to the old image and brand.. Whereas the company was just trying to bring people that never drink coke.
Maybe a marketing mistake, or a wise move to bring people back to Coca-Cola. New Coke. Coca-Cola Classic.

In 1993 : Computer animation, innovative : animated polar bears.12 weeks to produce from beginning to end. The bears represent innocence, mischief and fun.

In 2009, the “Open Happiness” commercial debuted during American Idol, encouraging us to enjoy Coke as one of life’s simple pleasures, an invitation to billions around the world to pause, refresh with a Coca‑Cola.
The happiness theme continued with “Open the Games. Open Happiness” featured during the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver.
Experts have long believed in the connection between happiness and wellness, and Coca‑Cola is proud to have played a part in happy occasions around the globe.

Coke was here at every important decades.
Even in space stations.
Coca-Cola present on Twitter, Facebook, video games, movies etc. It adapts to changes.

Coca-Cola and War:

World War 1 had brought rationning, on sugar too, this endangered business. They tried a clear coke but not the same thing.
End of the war didn’t end the problem, but brought recession and almost killed the company.
25 million dollars, Candler sold the company, biggest transaction in history of the south.
To Robert Woodruff

During World War II the Coca-Cola company decided to ship their soft drinks to United States military overseas. It created loyal customers and international exposure.
1941: life in the usa was going on as usual, but still an anxiety.
Restriction on many materials again, for packaging, ads, syrup etc. Instead of metal used wood for 6 pack.
Coca factories requisitionned like the others for war effort
But coca emotionally tied to people, to men fighting in the war, on the battlefield.
Symbol of american life, of what they were fighting for, many GIs’ letters talked about it.
Woodruff wanted to bring coca to soldiers, patriotic, but technical problems.
So decided to bnuid bottling plants to thr front lines, rather than ship bottle back and forth.
Eisnhower coke drinker, 6 million bottles order a month for army.
“The global high sign” new slogan, plants everywhere around the world.
But keeping the price at 5cents a bottle for soldiers was hard, very expansive to produce on front lines. But the investement worthed it.
More than 60 per cent of veterans after the war declared it their favourite drink, and sells rose.

Modernisation and Coca-Cola.
End of rationing, coke sylmbol of opulence.
Cultural icon

After WWII, new years for Coca-Cola
Until then Coca-Cola was only sold in the same single bottle. And delivery boys brought cokes from stations to houses.
But now, a wooden crate too heavy for a housewife to bring home.
Coca helped people escaped from daily problems, thanks to hollwood stars etc
1955: answer to that : bigger bottles, resembling the old classic familiar bottle. Less bottles to bring back, but bigger. For family, for the Home.

In the same time: more and more tvs in houses, and ads came closer to consumers.
See, hear product, see people refreshed by it, special effects and animations in ads, everyday life scenes for people to identify, or cowboys and movie stars, celebrities, for kids to dream. Workers too. Commercial spots, of leisure, relaxation and comfort.

Between WWII and Cold War : pax americana, american commercial and economic dominance.
In europe and asia developed economies had been taken down, but in the usa still growing, standing. Rebuilding of the world. Coca-Cola brought everywhere in the world, like chewing gums by soldiers. Unique identification of its trademark (red, logo).
Sells rose up fast. Ads referring to usa even in other countries : pretty girls drinking coke.
Became a global culture.
The only place where coke isn’t served is where politics entered the frame.
Little by little countries began to make their own ads, to touch their public, identification.
American brand, westernization.

The Formula:

The original ingredient included five ounces of coca leaf per gallon of syrup for about the first five years.
Pemberton was a war veteran and suffered some pains so added coca, it’s one of the theories..”
Today the company uses a cocaine-free coca leaf extract which is prepared in New Jersey.
“Natural flavouring”

Original recipe :
For 36 gallons:
For the flavouring:
216 pounds of sugar
18 gallons of water
29oz lime juice
29oz citric acid
18oz caffeine
29oz flavouring
3 quarts colouring
15 quarts (fluid extract) coca
1½ quarts of alcohol
12oz [fluid extract] nutmegs
19oz ext vanilla
13 d [illegible—“drops?”] oil lemon
10 d oil cinnamon
12 d oil nutmeg
15 d oil coriander
12 d oil neroli

The other applications like for cleaning, srubing rust etc makes us wonder what’s really in it and if it’s really safe.


killer coke .org

1906 : coca leaves forbidden in Coca-Cola, now only for flavour
Stepan Company: used to make cocaine, and still do for pharmaceutic labs, coca from bolivia and peru

Other problem : sugar
California : 40% of pop overweight or obese, against sodas
average american : 170liters of soda/year, 20kg of sugar
This makes people dependant, sugar addicts, reward mecanism in brain, the more you absorb it, the more dopamine reacts, the more you need to feel it, you become tolerant
And sugar is very dangerous for the body
heart attack, stroke (avc), cancer, demensia, diabetes
As dangerous as cigarets etc. Obesity and fat isn’t the main problem
1 can : 1 hour running to eliminate

Aspartame = Solution ? The fact is that we don’t know anything about it, we don’t know how it affects your energetic system, metabolism, long term… no data
Diet sodas : not a clue if it’s a solution or not

E150D : caramel coloring : controversies
sugar, ammonium, acids + high pressure : caramel color, but also other molecules 4Mi : provokes cancers. Leukemia, 1/50 000 risk

Ecological problem : Water.
San Cristobal, Mexico : Coca-Cola usine : for water, directly in the nappe phréatique : 750 000 liters/day (10 000 people every day)
25 000 euros/an en 2003 payés par coca : ridicule
People in there can’t have water anymore, and then have to drink coke in order not to be sick by drinking water
Vicente fox : former pdg of Coca-Cola mexique
now president of mexico
Coca omnipresent in Mexico, real problem
Water more expensive than coke in mexico
Mexico : 70% of pop obese or overweight
2020 : 100% estimated

Today’s flavours :
Vanilla Coke
Coke with Lime
Raspberry Coke
Cherry Coke
Orange Coke
Cherry Vanilla Coke
Diet Coke®
Diet Vanilla Coke
Diet Coke with Lime
Raspberry Diet Coke
Diet Cherry Coke
Orange Diet Coke
Diet Cherry Vanilla Coke
Coca-Cola Zero™
Cherry Coke Zero
Vanilla Coke Zero
Cherry Vanilla Coke Zero
Coke Zero with Orange
Coke Zero with Lime
Coke Zero with Raspberry
Coke Zero with Lemon
Caffeine-Free Diet Coke®
Caffeine-Free Diet Vanilla Coke
Caffeine-Free Diet Coke with Lime
Caffeine-Free Diet Coke with Orange
Caffeine-Free Diet Raspberry Coke
Caffeine-Free Diet Cherry Coke
Caffeine-Free Diet Cherry Vanilla Coke


The Coca-Cola Company has grown into the world’s largest beverage company with nearly 500 brands with more than 3,000 products. Their line includes sparkling beverages, juices, coffee, tea, sports drinks and packaged water. 

Their billion-dollar brands include Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Coca-Cola Zero, Fanta, Sprite, Glaceau, Vitaminwater, Aquarius, Minute Maid, Powerade, Dasani, Georgia Coffee, Nestea and Sokenbicha.

There are 104 variations Coca-Cola company drinks including waters, energy drinks, carbonated and non-carbonated drinks.

Why is Coca-Cola an Icon ?

Has followed history and changes of society with modern and adapting advertisement.
A strong image which has known how to stay the same, good old slogans, same recipe, a smell of tradition in a way. Striking colors and letters.
Always there in bad times, there can be war and all kind of troubles, there will always be a Coca-Cola to have a break and refresh.
Though there are some shades to this celebrity: ecological matters, health, enrichment at all price (share owners).

Sources :








“Coca-cola la recette secrète”, Romain Icard


Book “Coca-Cola dans l’Art”, Jean-Luc Chalumeau

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In terms of 9/11 being iconic, I suppose I would point to the American response to the shattering of safety that was the  terrorist attack that killed almost 3,000 people.  I first think of the short documentary ‘Boatlift’ that I watched in my high school english elective called ‘Resilience”.   Watching this video made you feel proud to be an American.  Here is excerpt:

On 9/11, over 500,000 people were rescued from Manhattan’s seawalls in just nine hours. How did this happen? What heroism made this possible? The answer lies in the resilience of the every day people at the scene that day, and the brave community of mariners who ply the waters of New York’s Harbor.

As the buildings fell, hundreds of tugboats, ferries, fishing boats, coast guard cutters and other vessels rushed towards the disaster. They did so at great personal risk. James Parese, the captain of the Staten Island Ferry, assumed he might be next. “We’re a big orange target in the middle of that harbor.”

Vincent Ardolino, captain of the Amberjack V, was at home in Brooklyn, watching the burning buildings on TV. He said, “I gotta go do something,” kissed his wife goodbye, dashed to his charter boat.

Boatlift plays off a very important sentiment in America: it simultaneously evokes the power/strength of the nation and the power/strength of the individual.  Teamwork is balanced with individual grit and sacrifice.

As soon as 9/11 is mentioned, people have an image or story pop into their head.  For those fortunate enough to not have it hit close to home, we often envision those terrible pictures of strangers jumping to their deaths.  As some of my fellow classmates likely know more about, the media is often accused of being sensationalists and there has been discussion about what should and shouldn’t be aired on television (think ISIS beheadings).

Again in high school, we read the book “Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close.”  The book was then adopted into a film and became more about 9 year old protagonist Oskar and less about some of the backstory and character tension.   Nonetheless, I found the film to be an appropriate tribute to 9/11.  You meet a very likable family of three and learn their world.  Soon in to the movie Oskar’s father dies in the World Trade Center. There are heartbreaking scences surrounding the chaos that was created on that horrible day.  A particularly devastating moment is when the husband, trapped in the WTC, is speaking to his wife on the phone.  I have heard that this scene resonates true with many, and illuminated the effect -both good and bad- that cell phones have on tragedy.  Oskar is an intelligent innocent and quirky boy, but he suffers from anxiety and self-aware depression (he calls it “heavy boots”).  You root for Oskar the whole time and his words can be both solace and painful as children’s words often are.

Another element of the film is that Oskar is searching for the hole that a key he found in his father’s closet fits into.  It was next to a name, Black, so Oskar is on a quest to find every Black in New York (woah!) and see if they have any information on the key.  Along his immediate post 9/11 journey around New York he meets people that help him and whom he helps.  Of course it isn’t all about the key.  This sense of community, of New York uniting and overcoming in the face of tragedy is fun to watch, and maybe American?

The film is tough to watch at some moments, but it also shows a realistic living process post tragedy.  There are good days and bad days (Oskar intentionally hurts himself), but the viewer gets to see the characters putting things together again and constructing a new life after 9/11 while always remembering those lost.

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When two planes crashed into the World Trade Center, I was eight and just beginning my day at Roberts Elementary School in King of Prussia. All I remember is being let out early, going home, and watching the news with my parents. The news was on for hours and hours that day, seemingly showing the same things over and over. It didn’t seem real, what I was watching. It seemed like some other country, far away. I remember asking why anyone would do this to us, and my dad telling me I was too young to understand, but that there are people in the world who really don’t like America. The idea was so abstract. Who couldn’t like America? What had we ever done wrong? The innocence of childhood. When I got older, probably not until high school, I really started to understand the who, what, where and why of the 9/11 attacks.

Unlike the Statue of Liberty, 9/11 is an event, a day that’s become an American icon. The World Trade Centers alone really didn’t stand for anything. Ned Kaufman grappled with this idea, and came to the conclusion that, “For most people who worked in or visited them, the towers were probably never symbols of anything in particular. When they came down on September 11, then they became symbols.” 9/11 and the World Trade Centers are an American icon together. The 9/11 memorial now marks the spot and day that changed America. I think we’d forgotten that not everyone loves America. We’d gotten too comfortable with the fact that America seems untouchable by foreign war at home while, “For nearly a century, war has rolled lopsidedly over the world, crushing the innocent in their homes. For half that century, the United States has been seen, by some people, as keeping the destruction rolling without getting too much in the way of it…to lurk behind it.” (Denis Johnson, The New Yorker) To answer Donald Antrim’s question in The New Yorker, no, the United States is still not a part of the rest of the world.

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The Falling Man

One of the most visceral images to emerge from the 9/11 attacks is not of the aftermath of Pentagon. It is not the pillar of smoke above the New York skyline, nor is it the before and after photographs of said skyline. While these images hold a certain power in the American consciousness, the Falling Man has been one of the pictures that resonated with me the most. The series of pictures were taken after the towers were hit, but approximately forty five minutes before the North Tower collapsed. There is video footage of the 9/11 jumpers shown in the History Channel Documentary 102 Minutes that Changed America.

The photographs hold horrific implications. The people in them are anonymous, but the pictures tell a story. Of desperate people trapped in a situation that is showing itself to be more and more hopeless by the minute, leaving one final choice: jumping or burning.

The nation (the world for that matter) was in a state of shock following the attacks. This picture perfectly encapsulates the confusion, the hopelessness, the shock of that moment in time.

My personal experience of 9/11 is affected by two facts: I lived right outside of Washington DC at the time, and I was six years old. Far enough away that I didn’t see the Pentagon bombing, but close enough to feel the panic, the tension in the air that I my six year old self could sense at the time despite not fully understanding it. We were rushed home from school early in the morning and didn’t return for several days.

This picture creates an image of despair, aimlessness and helps to set the tone for a new presidency, a new decade, a new millennium.

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Code Yellow


On September 11, 2001 I was in second grade. I remember asking my teacher why so many of my classmates were going home. At the end of the day my mother came to pick me up because my sister happened to be sick. I remember in the car she told me what had happened. I did not fully understand but what I did understand was that I was happy my mother was home. My family is originally from New York and to this day, my mother works in New York. Whenever I remember 9/11 I thank God for my mother being home and not in New York that day, even if she was on 98th street.

9/11 has created a different nation. Now America scares easily. It has taken away our sense of safety. And it is also easier for the American people to give up their rights in the name of security. I know that most of the time I enter the subway or get on a bus, especially in New York, I experience a moment of fear. I have spent the last 13 years watching as the Freedom Tower has been built. I make sure to look out the window every time before I enter the Lincoln Tunnel on my frequent trips home.

Tribute in Light

Something that really upsets me though is the conspiracy theories.  I don’t know how anyone could believe the government is desperate enough to kill its own people to start a war. I guess I am subconsciously supporting the belief of America as a morally superior place – the kingdom on the hill. It is honestly difficult to think about 9/11 in terms of American ideals and icons. It is still too fresh to think of it at all in an academic sense. But the most iconic ideal that comes out of 9/11 is the America that fights for freedom. Just the name, Freedom tower rings America. It is also pretty cool that its 1776 ft tall. The building is a wonder in itself. Add in the beautiful memorial, the memories of those that passed, the stories of their lives and most importantly how quickly Americans came together and it is one of the most iconic things in American history, and it was only just completed.

I will be spending my summer interning in New York. The most recent time I was in the city I visited my mother at work. I remember sitting in her office hearing someone say code yellow. I had no idea what that meant so I relayed it to my mother. A couple minutes later it became clear that code yellow meant a massive accident, in this case a building explosion. But in the instant I learned what code yellow meant, I thought about 9/11. I thought about how close we were to Ground Zero. I thought about the potential danger my mother was in everyday she went to work. The scary part is now if anything were to happen to the Freedom Tower or anywhere near it, my mother would be directly in harms way. My mother works at a hospital about 5 blocks from the Freedom Tower. The conflicting thing is I know I will visit my mother a lot during the summer because I am in complete awe of the Freedom Tower, but if 9/11 were to repeat each other the building and memorial that I love could harm my mother. It’s scary to think I could be like so many people that day who could not find their loved ones, who would never see them again.

I always say I never thought I would live in a time of war, even more than that I never thought I would live through a terrorist attack so similar to Pearl Harbor, an attack that could have easily been so much worse. Make me think how lucky I am as an American. I have those two oceans protecting me, and bombs and attacks are not everyday occurrences for me. 9/11 not only changed America, it changed me and I was only 8.


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